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JOIG 2023 Vol.11(1): 61-71
doi: 10.18178/joig.11.1.61-71

Robust Dual Digital Watermark Applied to Antique Digitized Cinema Images: Resistant to Print-Scan Attack

Laura Reyes-Ruiz 1, Eduardo Fragoso-Navarro 1 , Francisco Garcia-Ugalde 1, Oswaldo Juarez-Sandoval 2, Manuel Cedillo-Hernandez 2, *, and Mariko Nakano-Miyatake 2
1. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Ingeniería, Ciudad de México, Mexico
2. Instituto Politécnico Nacional, SEPI ESIME Culhuacán, Ciudad de México, Mexico
*Correspondence: mcedilloh@ipn.mx (M.C.H.)

Manuscript received July 11, 2022; revised August 30, 2022; accepted November 20, 2022.

Abstract—Nowadays, advances in information and communication technologies along with easy access to electronic devices such as smartphones have achieved an agile and efficient storing, edition, and distribution of digital multimedia files. However, lack of regulation has led to several problems associated with intellectual property authentication and copyright protection. Furthermore, the problem becomes complex in a scenario of illegal printed exploitation, which involves printing and scanning processes. To solve these problems, several digital watermarking in combination with cryptographic algorithms has been proposed. In this paper, a strategy of robust watermarking is defined consisting of the administration and detection of unauthorized use of digitized cinematographic images from Mexican cultural heritage. The proposed strategy is based on the combination of two types of digital watermarking, one of visible-camouflaged type based on spatial domain and another of invisible type based on frequency domain, together with a particle swarm optimization. The experimental results show the high performance of the proposed algorithm faced to printing-scanning processes or digital-analogue attack, and common image geometric and image processing attacks such as JPEG compression. Additionally, the imperceptibility of the watermark is evaluated by PSNR and compared with other previously proposed algorithms.

Keywords—digital watermarking, image processing, information security, authentication, copyright protection, cultural heritage

Cite: Laura Reyes-Ruiz, Eduardo Fragoso-Navarro, Francisco Garcia-Ugalde, Oswaldo Juarez-Sandoval, Manuel Cedillo-Hernandez, and Mariko Nakano-Miyatake, "Robust Dual Digital Watermark Applied to Antique Digitized Cinema Images: Resistant to Print-Scan Attack," Journal of Image and Graphics, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 61-71, March 2023.

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.