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JOIG 2023 Vol.11(2): 132-139
doi: 10.18178/joig.11.2.132-139

Simulation of Facial Palsy Using Cycle GAN with Skip-Layer Excitation Module and Self-Supervised Discriminator

Takato Sakai1,*, Masataka Seo2, Naoki Matsushiro3, and Yen-Wei Chen 1
1. Graduate School of Information and Engineering Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan;
Email: chen@is.ritsumei.ac.jp (Y.W.C.)
2. Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka, Japan; Email: masataka@oit.ac.jp (M.S.)
3. Osaka Police Hospital, Osaka, Japan; Email: ent@opr.gr.jp (N.M.) *Correspondence: is0410se@ed.ritsumei.ac.jp (T.S.)

Manuscript received December 3, 2022; revised March 30, 2023; accepted May 10, 2023.

Abstract—The Yanagihara method is used to evaluate facial nerve palsy based on visual examinations by physicians. Examples of scored images are important for educational purposes and as references, however, due to patient privacy concern, actual facial images of real patients cannot be used for educational purposes. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem by generating facial images of a virtual patient with facial nerve palsy, that can be shared and utilized by physicians. To reproduce the patient facial expression in a public face image, we propose a method to generate a swapped face image using the improved Cycle Generative Adversarial Networks (Cycle GAN) with a skiplayer excitation module and a self-supervised discriminator. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can generate more coherent swapped faces that are similar to the public face identity and patient facial expressions. The proposed method also improves the quality of generated swapped face images while keeping them identical to the source (genuine) face image.

Keywords—facial nerve palsy, deep learning, Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN), Faceswap, few-shot image generation

Cite: Takato Sakai, Masataka Seo, Naoki Matsushiro, and Yen-Wei Chen, "Simulation of Facial Palsy Using Cycle GAN with Skip-Layer Excitation Module and Self-Supervised Discriminator," Journal of Image and Graphics, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 132-139, June 2023.

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.